As a satellite travels along the orbital path the Solar Arrays must remain pointed at the Sun to produce power. This is accomplished in a number of methods based on the satellite design. Satellites with fixed arrays must point their surfaces at the Sun or spin around the axis that allows them to rotate into the Sun light. With movable solar arrays they either actively track the Sun or are driven at a constant rate to maintain their pointing.

Spin stabilized or 2 axis satellites typically have fixed solar panels and positioning is achieved by the orientation of the spin axis of the satellite. Attitude or Spin Precession Maneuvers are periodically preformed to maintain the spin axis alignment.

Solar arrays on a 3 axis stabilized satellite track the Sun by the implementation of positioning mechanisms that either step the arrays or actively position them. To simplify the tracking system a geared drive system is driven by stepper motors that are selected to provide the required torque and move the array smoothly. The number of steps are calculated using the angular step size of the stepper motor, the gear ratio, and the angular change needed. This is used to generate the required number of pulses per second. Pulses are generated in the solar array drive electronics then applied to the motor to allow them to complete one complete 360 degree revolution a day. To increase accuracy the sidereal day measurement of approximately 23:56:04 hours is used. These systems can provide accurate positioning with minimal operational requirements. Over time periodic adjustments are made to minimize any tracking errors and optimize positioning and output power.

Active positioning systems also employ the use of stepper motors and the output of the solar array is sampled and converted to pulses that are applied to the stepper motor to maintain the peak output power. One important characteristic of this system is that it can not be used during eclipse periods, during these periods the system normally reverts to a stepped mode and the active control is resumed when the satellite returns to full sunlight. When these systems are fully optimized it significantly reduces operational intervention to maintain peak power. Failures in active tracking systems can lead to a rapid loss of power and must have antiquate procedures or automated sequences to prevent the arrays from being driven off the Sun.